As part of the series of seminars proposed to be organized by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for dissemination of information about the standardization achieved and going on in the field of construction management, a Seminar on Construction Project Management was organized jointly by BIS and the School of Planning and Architecture (SPA), New Delhi on 30 November 2010 at New Delhi.
Prof Kavas Kapadia, Professor of Planning and Dean of Education, SPA was the Chief Guest in the Inaugural Session who mentioned that construction project management is critical to the success of any construction project. Drawing corollary from ‘law and order’, he said whereas the law exists in the form of Indian Standards and building and other regulations, it would be important to bring required level of ‘order’ in the construction activities in its right earnestness. In this context, he said, implementation of construction project management standards is quite vital. He said this is particularly important when we see everyday buildings falling and killing number of people. He showed happiness on the successful achievement in development of Indian Standards on construction project management and further work going on in this field. He complimented BIS and SPA for their initiative in organizing the Seminar on this topical subject.
The Inaugural Session was presided over by Shri H.S. Dogra, Chairman, Civil Engineering Division Council of BIS & Advisor (Transport), Government of NCT of Delhi. Shri Dogra drew attention to the present state of affairs of management of series of construction projects going on throughout the country including the medium sized and mega projects. Sharing exhaustive statistics, he informed that scores of national projects are suffering from time and cost over-runs because of reasons such as slow progress of construction activity, fund constraints, problems in land acquisition, etc. At the same time, he said, there are projects in the country which are living examples of employing sound construction management resulting in completion of projects well in time. But efforts are needed to spread the message of good construction management aspects for proper construction of all our projects. He said it is heartening that first standard on construction project management as IS 15883(Part 1):2009 has already been published by BIS and standards on specific aspects such as time management, cost management, quality management and health & safety management, which are considered as the four corners of the project, are also under preparation. He said that It was further encouraging to note that, with the efforts made for dissemination of information in this field by BIS, active discussions had started and due importance was being given to the aspects of good construction management and felt that such efforts should be continued.
Shri P.K. Gambhir, Scientist `G’ (Technical), BIS delivered his special address as the Guest of Honour in the Inaugural Session. He dwelled on the dimension of construction scenario in the country necessitating proper management of the same so that for such a large national investment, optimum returns are assured in terms of timely completion of projects within stipulated cost and avoiding any wastage. He briefly informed about developments leading to formulation of the first-ever standard world-over by BIS on the subject of construction project management. Explaining nuances of construction project and its management, he stressed that unless there is efficient and effective project management, a construction project is faced with challenges of uncertainties resulting in time over-runs, cost over-runs, changes in project parameters, loss of quality and inability to meet the functional objectives, leading to much escalated cost to the exchequer or owner and delay in associated tangible and non-tangible benefits to the society and consequent overall delay in development. Therefore, there is dire need for the management functions and technical processes in construction projects to be integrated towards achieving project objectives. He said that BIS has, therefore, brought out the Indian Standard IS 15883(Part 1):2009 Guidelines for Construction Project Management: Part 1 General in record time prescribing the relevant guidelines and work is progressing well for development of various other parts covering specific project management functions, such as:
- Scope management,
- Procurement management,
- Time management, - draft prepared and issued for public comments
- Cost management,
- Quality management,
- Risk management,
- Communication management,
- Human resources management,
- Health and Safety management, - Preliminary draft prepared
- Sustainability management,
- Integration management, and
- Other management processes.
Shri Gambhir advised all to implement the standard effectively in various construction projects and also participate in the ongoing process of formulation of further standards in this field. He said with the changing scenario new challenges would be thrown in the field of construction management and standardization needs for the same; and BIS is committed to respond timely to all such needs. While thanking all the participants, Shri Gambhir requested them to make full use of the interactive technical sessions of the Seminar.
The Key-Note Address was delivered by Shri P. Krishnan, Chairman of Construction Management Sectional Committee of BIS and former Director General, CWPD. Referring to the major projects in the field of construction, Shri Krishnan mentioned that historically there have been construction projects of very large dimensions such as Pyramids of Giza, the Great Wall of China and Taj Mahal which had been successfully completed. He said, however, in such projects time was not as important and cost escalation over time was not so much. Today the scenario has completely changed. The projects are complex in nature involving large number of disciplines and agencies requiring the daunting task of coordination and integration. Compared to thousands of years it took to reach a population of 2 billion on the earth, the population has risen phenomenally during recent times with around 4 billion added during just last one century necessitating shelter and other infrastructure requirements at a matching pace. With all these developments, of various elements, the time, cost, quality and safety have emerged as most important elements. These along with various other project management functions have to be well managed utilizing different networking techniques and other tools now available. However, the various documents on project achievements available make a very dismal reading with majority of the projects running behind schedule and suffering from huge cost over-runs. He shared that, in BIS the need for developing suitable guidelines for proper management of construction projects was being felt for quite sometime. He informed that, on examining the documents available world over, it was noticed that while publications on project management including standards thereon have been developed by some of the developed countries, no standard on construction project management was available by any of the countries or ISO.
The Construction Management Sectional Committee of BIS took up an ambitious project to develop a comprehensive guideline in this field. The Indian Standard, IS 15883 (Part 1):2009 has since been formulated which has been received very well by the industry. He informed that work on other parts dwelling on fundamental and core elements of construction project management i.e. time, cost and quality along with others such as health & safety management was going on and he is confident that the same would also be brought out soon.
Earlier, Prof Virendra Kumar Paul, SPA & Convener of the Seminar extended a warm welcome to the dignitaries, speakers and the delegates. He informed about the activities of the Department of Building Engineering & Management of SPA. He shared that standardization on construction management made a humble beginning with introduction in a brief way in the Part 7 Constructional Practices (with safety) in the National Building Code of India 2005. He mentioned that since then SPA along with other organizations is making its contribution towards fulfilling the need for full fledged detailed standards in this field. He mentioned that SPA is committed to share their expertise for the national cause of standardization in this important field and dissemination of information about standards on construction management to all the stakeholders jointly with BIS. He then informed about the efforts made by BIS and SPA in organizing this first Seminar on Construction Project Management.
Shri Sanjay Pant, Director, BIS and Member-Secretary, BIS technical committee on Construction Management while giving the programme objectives mentioned about the current efforts of BIS for development of national standards in this field and extensive work planned and being done for the same. He invited all the stakeholders to join these efforts through their technical contribution on various documents being issued for public comments as well as through participation in series of Seminars on the subject proposed to be organized in near future. He said, in view of appropriate coverage of all relevant issues in the standard, effective implementation of the provisions of standard can bring paradigm shift in the construction scenario which is presently seeing an unprecedented scale of activities. Therefore, it is important that such a valuable guidelines are implemented appropriately to bring right culture in construction activities. He explained the background for organizing the Seminar so that the experts involved in national standardization in this field in the BIS Technical Committee may share about the provisions of the standard and help in implementation by all concerned.
In the Technical Sessions, the various speakers presented details about different areas under construction project management and explained the important provisions covered in the standard and the drafts under circulation/preparation on various construction project management functions. Shri Sanjay Pant, Director, BIS in the first technical session, gave an overview of the BIS Project on Construction Project Management. He explained the construction project stages such as project appraisal stage, pre-construction stage, construction stage and commissioning & handing over stage and the various activities involved in each of the stages requiring project management applications. He explained about features of a typical construction project, need for construction project management through integration of management functions and technical processes for achieving project objectives, and aspect of top management commitment, all required for efficient and effective project management. Shri Pant explained the status of the BIS project on construction project management wherein IS 15883(Part 1) covering general guidelines has since been published and Draft standards on Time Management and Health & Safety Management have since been brought out and work is going on for preparation of drafts on other project management functions including Cost Management and Quality Management. All the participants were provided copy of the published Indian Standard and requested to make all out efforts to implement the same. They were also provided copies of the above draft standards and requested to provide their comments/feedback on the same.
Shri P. Krishnan, Chairman of Construction Management Sectional Committee of BIS and former DG CWPD gave an Overview of IS 15883(Part 1):2009. Explaining the features of a construction project, he mentioned that it is an endeavour undertaken by a project team on behalf of owner/client to create a built facility suited to the defined functional objectives. He said, from inception to commissioning, the project goes through various distinct stages leading to progressive achievement of project objectives wherein each stage involves specific inputs, processes (both technical and managerial) and deliverables. Shri Krishnan explained the following stages involved from commencement to completion in a typical life cycle of a construction project:
- Project appraisal – inception, feasibility and strategic planning;
- Project development – project brief development, planning and design, finalization of proposals, procurement strategy, construction documentation including tender drawings, working drawings, specifications, cost estimates, bills of quantities, procurement documents;
- Planning for construction – Sequencing of project components, planning tools, resource planning and time cost trade off
- Tender action – open competitive bidding/pre-qualification of agencies, issue of tender documents, evaluation of bids, negotiation if required and award of work;
- Construction – execution, monitoring, control, work acceptance; and
- Commissioning and handing over – contractual closeout, financial closeout, defect liability commencement, facility handing over.
Shri Krishnan explained that the BIS Technical Committee is presently concentrating on the stages subsequent to the stage of approval (when a decision to implement the project including its financing is taken) till commissioning and handing over of the project and the scope of the present standardization exercise is, therefore, limited to the same. The aspects regarding project formulation and appraisal up to the stage of preparation of preliminary proposals for financial approval are proposed to be covered in separate standard to be brought out later. He then explained various provisions/aspects as covered in the standard such as stakeholder, construction project life cycle, construction project delivery models, construction methodologies/techniques, organizational structures and employment of various tools and techniques during various stages of construction including for project development; planning for construction through sequencing of project components, use of planning tools, resource planning, time cost trade-off; tender action including preparation of tender documents, selection of construction agencies, bid evaluation-negotiation-award of work; actual construction; and finally commissioning and handing over. He also indicated about various construction project management functions briefly touched upon in IS 15883(Part 1) such as scope management, procurement management, time management, cost management, quality management, risk management, communication management, human resources management, safety, health and environment management, integration management, and other management processes.
Shri Jose Kurian, Convener, BIS Working Group on Time Management & Chief Engineer, Delhi Tourism & Transportation Development Corporation, New Delhi informed that as a sequel to IS 15883(Part 1) covering general provisions, the BIS Committee has now prepared draft of IS 15883(Part 2) on Time Management and the same had since been issued for public comments. He explained the general aspects covered in this Part such as scope of time management; need for time management; time, cost and quality integration for taking holistic view of time management; organizational structure for time management; and methods and processes for time management. He further explained that this Part covers the provisions for management of time in construction activity through three distinct features namely time planning, time monitoring and time control. Explaining Time Planning, Shri Kurian highlighted the complete flow of typical time planning/scheduling process and in this context explained the aspects involved such as project peculiarities and context development; work breakdown structure; activity identification; productivity standards; resource availability and duration estimating; logical sequencing; milestones and times scheduling; target setting; and time management deliverables. Similarly, he explained the typical time monitoring process involving activity tracking and reporting; resource tracking; scope variation monitoring; planned versus actual performance monitoring through the use of suitable procedure for graphical report preparation involving baseline plan, baseline versus actual process and catch up plan; delay identification; and reporting for time control. In this context, he drew attention to ‘Earned Value Management Technique’ and ‘Sample Time Monitoring Report based on Weightage Concept (S-Curve)’ given annexed to the draft standard. Further, Shri Kurian explained a typical time control process involving evaluation of impact of scope variation; delay analysis; schedule specific risk analysis; and identifying and taking mitigation measures.
Dr V. Thiruvengadam, Convener, BIS Working Group on Cost Management, Professor, Deptt of Building Engg & Management, SPA, New Delhi, in his presentation informed that the draft Indian Standard IS 15883(Part 3) on Cost Management is under preparation and briefly explained the features of an initial draft in this connection being developed. He explained that it is proposed to cover the provision of cost management applicable during preconstruction phase, construction phase and project completion & closeout phase. In preconstruction phase, the phase is proposed to be divided into Concept planning stage, preliminary planning and design stage, detailed planning and design stage, procurement stage, bid evaluation and award stage; and cost related processes in each of the stages detailed out. Relevant project estimation approaches, cost models and value management approaches will be covered along with cost management issues relevant to procurement methods, bid analysis and evaluation. During Construction stage, it will cover relevant tools and techniques for cost planning for project execution, cost monitoring methods and cost control and change control procedures. Also, cost performance measurement models, cost control and change control methodology will be covered. During, Project completion & closeout stage, it is proposed to cover relevant cost related issues such as compilation of final costs, documentations for future project cost estimates, documentation of risks encountered, lessons learnt, etc.
Prof V.K. Paul, Convener, BIS Working Group on Quality Management & Head, Deptt of Building Engg & Management, SPA, New Delhi, in his presentation, informed that an initial draft Indian Standard IS 15883(Part 4) on Quality Management has since been worked out and is being discussed further before circulation and briefly explained the features contained in the same. He explained that the draft would cover provisions relating to management of quality in different stages of the project. It would cover quality management requirements such as quality policy; project specific quality planning; organization structure and stakeholder interfaces; roles, responsibility and authority; responsibility delegation for construction quality management; competence, training and awareness; procurement of supplies services; construction quality planning for sub-contractors, and construction quality planning for suppliers. With respect to resources, it would cover aspects such as resource need analysis and deployment planning, information technology tools, technical reference material, work environment, equipment, instrumentation and testing facilities, and technical and managerial competencies. It would also cover construction quality management documentation and system implementation such as quality plan, QA system for construction equipment, plant and machineries, QA procedures for works, QC processes, traceability, and dissemination of quality documents to construction teams; the QA and QC interventions with the construction work procedures; work procedures integration, clash analysis, co-ordination and validation; establishing infrastructure for construction quality; management of non-conforming works, emergencies and disasters; interpretation, measurement and benchmarking; quality performance indicators and acceptance criteria such as quality auditing, quality cost analysis, system and process review, and quality improvement interventions; promoting a quality culture involving performance appraisal and recognition, and working conditions and workforce practices; and integration with other management system.
Shri V. Balaji, Head, EHS, L&T Ltd, Chennai informed that the BIS Committee has prepared preliminary draft of IS 15883(Part 5) on Health & Safety Management which is available for comments and would shortly be further improved and issued in wide circulation as draft for public comments. He explained that the draft covers provisions for H&S during different construction stages and detailed H&S management requirements covering health and safety policy; project specific health and safety planning; resources, roles, responsibilities and authority; competence, training and awareness; health and safety communication; health and safety reporting; operation control; permit to work systems; certification of plant and machinery; lifting tools and tackles; sub-contractor management; fire prevention and control; access control; safety of visitors; traffic and logistics management; design and engineering; performance monitoring and improvements; reward and reprimand; promoting a positive health and safety culture; and integration with other management systems. He explained that this draft standard prescribes requirements in addition to IS 18001 ‘Occupational health and safety management system – Requirements with guidance for use’ and IS 15793 ‘Managing environment, occupational health and safety legal compliance – Requirements of good practices’ and gives guidelines on implementing these specific to a construction project. He clarified regarding the over-riding requirement of complying with the various central and state regulations including Building and other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996 and rules framed thereunder with respect to managing health and safety in construction projects.
The Concluding Session was held under the Chairmanship of Shri P. Krishnan along with Shri Jose Kurian, Dr V. Thiruvengadam, Prof V.K. Paul, Shri V. Balaji and Shri Sanjay Pant as other Panel members of the session. In the session, various questions, suggestions and queries of the participants were duly discussed and answered by the panelists and lot of interactions were held on various issues. Suggestions like inclusion of technology component in the tradeoff apart from time-cost tradeoff and inclusion of guidelines for management of de-construction activities were also made. Shri Sanjay Pant, Director, BIS gave the Report of the Seminar and thanked all for the success of the event. Heemphasized on adopting the Indian Standard on construction project management and participate in the ongoing exercise of BIS on standardization in this field. The delegates thanked BIS and IE(I) for arranging such a comprehensive exercise of dissemination of information about the standardization in construction management through this Seminar.
More than 100 delegates representing Government construction departments/ agencies such as CPWD, MES/ Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, AP State Housing Department, Bengal DCL Housing Development Co; private construction agencies/ organizations/ consulting organizations such as L&T, Ahluwalia Contracts Ltd, IRCO Pvt Ltd, Infrastructure Firstsource Solutions Ltd, Mahindra World City, Consulting Engineering Services, Creative Design Consultants, Halcrow Consulting India Pvt Ltd, Project Management Institute, Adlakha Associates Pvt Ltd; construction professionals such as architects, engineers, structural engineers and members of professional institutions; public sector enterprises such as DTTDC, NTPC, EIL; R&D and academic institutions such as faculty and students from SPA; and building material, component and equipment manufacturers/ suppliers/ other organizations such as Reliance Industries Ltd, Ultratech Cement Ltd, Ambuja Cements Ltd, J.K. White Cement Works, Asahi India Glass Ltd, Saint-Gobain, UTC Fire and Security Company and other stakeholders participated in the above highly successful Seminar.
Prof V.K. Paul, Convener of the Seminar thanked all the dignitaries and the delegates for making it convenient to participate in this important national event and all those who lent their support in organizing the Seminar, and hoped that all would carry forward the message of implementation of Indian Standards in the field of Construction Project Management for ensuring well planned and executed construction activity throughout the country with the ultimate aim of orderly, timely, safe, sustainable and economical construction scenario.