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A Benchmarking Framework for Evaluating Efficiencies of Major Irrigation Projects
Title A Benchmarking Framework for Evaluating Efficiencies of Major Irrigation Projects: Role of Water Users Associations
Publisher/ Author India Core Publishing
Year Published

2012

ISBN/ RNI -
Format Paperback
Pages Pp 270
Delivery Indian as well as International Orders & Deliveries accepted
Product Code IPBWA-102
Publication Price in INR (for Indian Orders)

Rs 5000

Publication Price in USD (for International Orders) USD 150

Book Details

The concept of measurement of efficiencies of Irrigation distribution services has so far not been investigated in India. The present work explores and establishes the need for measurement of performances, and endeavors to develop two frameworks for exploring efficiencies and measuring performances. These frameworks are exemplified by a case study relating to the measurement of performances of a major irrigation and drainage project - the Samrat Ashok Sagar major irrigation cum flood protection project, constructed across river Halali, a tributary of Betwa River in Vidisha District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.

The work involved measuring project performance in terms of selected Performance Indicators and their integration into a scorecard. Since a simple comparison of indicators provides little information with regard to the overall performance of the project due to presence of multiplicity of indicators, a non-parametric Data Envelopment analysis (DEA) has also been employed by evolving relevant inputs and outputs. The methodology involves identification of appropriate DEA variables to explore benchmarks, compute the quantum of inefficiencies, and investigate the potential for efficient levels of input usage and hence the quantum of possible savings. The results have been discussed with regard to suggested policy measures that may lead to enhancement of Project performances of similar Irrigation projects.

Benchmarking has been conducted at the project level, as well as the Water Users Associations (WUAs) level, to explore the significance of the latter. A major finding of this work is that even within an apparently efficient project, there lie pockets of inefficiencies, i.e. the overall project may seem to be performing well, but may still have some WUAs that perform relatively inefficiently, thus necessitating the need for benchmarking at the WUA level for all water resources projects, a policy that is non-existent currently. Other findings relate to the quantum of inefficiencies, possible savings, overstaffing, need for restructuring and reorganisation of WUA boundaries etc., all of which have been detailed in the book. The results have been discussed in the context of policy measures and it is expected that the work will be of use to various stakeholders including the government, policy-makers and the public bodies, regulatory authorities, project managers, engineers, funding institutions, development institutions, and the WUAs. The results of this study can provide a tool to decision-makers so as to promote sustenance in the irrigation services.

"This book applies the concept of benchmarking to irrigation projects that have Water Resources Departments (WRD) and Water User Associations (WUAs) working in partnership under the Participatory Irrigation Management framework. By directing the focus of the debate to assessing extent of irrigation efficiency, authors’ attempt through this effort is to get both WRD engineers and WUAs to work collaboratively to identify existing causes of inefficiency in irrigation service delivery and to work together to address them and enhance productivity per drop of water. I commend the authors on this pioneering effort and for helping demonstrate the direction in which efforts of more and more WRD and Irrigation Department engineers needs to go-- contributing to improving water management and irrigation service delivery for farmers and their WUAs.
-- Shankar Narayanan-- Sr. Social Development Specialist-- World Bank, India Country office.

“Benchmarking is increasingly being used in the irrigation and drainage (I&D) sector as an integral part of programmes to enhance performance. Identifying the current performance of I&D schemes and benchmarking these against well performing schemes helps identify the performance gaps and enables scheme managers and others to identify actions for improvement. Sanjay Phadnis and Mukul Kulshrestha’s book is a welcome addition to the literature on benchmarking and adds to our understanding of the process and procedures to be followed and the beneficial outcomes that can be obtained, helping us move towards more efficient and productive agriculture and water use.”
---Dr. Martin Burton, co-author “Guidelines for benchmarking performance in the irrigation and drainage sector”, The International Programme for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID) Secretariat, Food and Agriculture Organisation, FAO of the UN, Rome, Italy.

About the Authors

Dr Sanjay Sitaram Phadnis is working with the World Bank Funded Madhya Pradesh Water Sector Restructuring Project of the Water Resources Department, Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal, India. He has a field experience and training of over 30 years in various internationally funded Water Resources projects, and has a Ph.D. from the National Institute of Technology, MANIT-Bhopal, India. For detailed profile, click here

Dr Mukul Kulshrestha is currently teaching at the National Institute of Technology, MANIT-Bhopal, India. He is a graduate in Civil Engineering from IIT-Kanpur, and has a Master’s degree in Environmental Engineering also from IIT-Kanpur. He has a Ph.D. from IIT-Delhi, and has consulting, teaching and research experience of nearly 20 years. For detailed profile, click here

 


Contents

 

 

List of Tables....................... v
List of Figures.................... vii
List of Photographs.................. viii
List of Abbreviation................... ix

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION..................... Ch 1-1
1.1 Need for Efficiency Improvements in Existing Irrigation Services.......................... Ch 1-2
1.2 Stakeholders that Require Efficiency Analysis.......... Ch 1-6
1.3 Objectives Envisaged in this Book............................. Ch 1-6
1.4 Objectives of the study................... Ch 1-7
1.5 Significance of the work........................ Ch 1-8
1.6 Presentation Structure Adopted in this Book.............. Ch 1-8

CHAPTER 2: IRRIGATION IN INDIA- THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT..........Ch 2-1
2.1 Global Water Scenario.................... Ch 2-1
2.2 The history of irrigation development in India........... Ch 2-2
2.2.1 Irrigation development in the medieval India............. Ch 2-2
2.2.2 Irrigation Development under the British Rule........... Ch 2-3
2.2.3 Irrigation Development Since Independence.............. Ch 2-3
2.3 Water in Indian Constitution........................... Ch 2-6
2.3.1 Legal Powers with Reference to the Water Sector................ Ch 2-7
2.3.2 Relevant Laws made by the Indian Parliament .......... Ch 2-8
2.3.3 Relevant Laws made on Water by the State Legislature of Madhya Pradesh.....Ch 2-9
2.4 Policy Framework Central and State Policies............. Ch 2-9
2.4.1 National Water Policy 2002.......................... Ch 2-10
2.4.2 The Need for a State Water Policy........................... Ch 2-14
2.4.3 State Water Policy in Madhya Pradesh..................... Ch 2-18
2.5 Plan Development after the Independence of India ( Post Year 1947) ....Ch 2-19
2.6 Trends in Irrigation Investment in India................... Ch 2-20
2.7 Water Resources in Madhya Pradesh ...................... Ch 2-24
2.7.1 Provision in Draft National Water Policy (2002) ..............Ch 2-26
2.7.2 Provisions in PIM Acts......................... Ch 2-27
2.7.2.1. Water Users' Association (WUA)............................ Ch 2-27
2.7.2.2. Distributary Committee........................ Ch 2-27
2.7.2.3. Project Committee....................... Ch 2-28
2.7.3 Necessity of PIM ....................... Ch 2-28
2.7.3.1 Need of increase in agricultural production ............ Ch 2-28
2.7.3.2 Problem of fiscal availability ....................... Ch 2-29
2.7.3.3 O&M cost and recovery of irrigation charges ......... Ch 2-29
2.7.3.4 Other compulsions...................... Ch 2-29
2.7.4 Objectives of PIM....................... Ch 2-30
2.7.5. Status of Enactment of Legislation for PIM............. Ch 2-31
2.7.6 Issues in Implementation of PIM............................. Ch 2-33
2.7.6.1 Lack of legal back-up and policy changes .............. Ch 2-33
2.7.6.2 System deficiency....................... Ch 2-34
2.7.6.3 Uncertainty of water availability................... Ch 2-34
2.7.6.4 Fear of financial viability..................... Ch 2-34
2.7.6.5 Lack of technical knowledge ....................... Ch 2-35
2.7.6.6 Lack of leadership...................... Ch 2-35
2.7.6.7 Lack of publicity and training....................... Ch 2-35
2.7.6.8 Demographic diversity......................... Ch 2-35
2.7.6.9 Mega irrigation projects........................ Ch 2-35
2.7.6.10 WUAs vs Panchayats.................... Ch 2-36
2.7.6.11 PIM in efficient systems ..................... Ch 2-36
2.8 Role of WUAs in Participatory Irrigation Management in Madhya Pradesh, India........ Ch 2-36
2.9 Reforms Programme of the Government of India........Ch 2-38

CHAPTER 3: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE RELATED TO PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS IN THE IRRIGATION SECTOR.......................... Ch 3-1
3.1 Indicators Based Measurement of Performances..................... Ch 3-1
3.2 DEA Based Measurement of Performances............ .Ch 3-20

CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY & ITS APPLICATION ON THE MODEL WORK AREA ...........Ch 4-1
4.1 Study Methodology....................... Ch 4-2
4.1.1 Benchmarking Indicators Employed for Indicator-by-Indicator Comparisons integrated with a scorecard........... Ch 4-4
4.1.2 Study Methodology for Benchmarking by DEA........ Ch 4-8
4.2 Data Details....................... Ch 4-15
4.2.1 Work Area Details...................... Ch 4-15
4.3 Gross Performance Features......................... Ch 4-21

CHAPTER 5: PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AT THE PROJECT LEVEL USING INDICATORS AND DEA ...........Ch 5-1
5. 0 Analysis, Results and Discussions............................. Ch 5-1
5.1 Indicator-by-Indicator Comparisons, and integration of Indicators into a Scorecard ...... Ch 5-1
5.1.A Data employed for Indicator-by-Indicator benchmarking at Project level ...................... Ch 5-1
5.1.1 Technical Performance................... Ch 5-5
5.1.1.1 Water delivery capacity Index........................ Ch 5-5
5.1.1.2 Potential Created Versus Potential Utilised in Rabi Season for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 Ch 5-9
5.1.1.3 Annual Water delivered against crop water requirement for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 Ch 5-10
5.1.1.4 Field Efficiency for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08......................... Ch 5-11
5.1.1.5 Annual relative irrigation supply index for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08................... Ch 5-12
5.1.1.6 Annual irrigation water supply in command versus Irrigated area (2000-01 to 2007-08) Ch 5-13
5.1.2 Agriculture Production Performance........................ Ch 5-14
5.1.2.1 Output per unit command area versus irrigated area for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 Ch 5-16
5.1.2.2 Output per unit Irrigated water supply versus output per unit water consumed in Irrigated Area for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 ....................... Ch 5-17
5.1.3 Financial Performance ........................ Ch 5-18
5.1.3.1 Cost Recovery Ratio for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 ................... Ch 5-19
5.1.3.2 Total O&M cost per unit area for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 ...................... Ch 5-20
5.1.3.3 Total cost per person employed on water delivery per day for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 Ch 5-22
5.1.3.4 Revenue collection performance for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08............................ Ch 5-23
5.1.3.5 Revenue per unit volume of water supplied for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 ........... Ch 5-25
5.1.3.6 Maintenance expenditure to Revenue collection Ratios for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 Ch 5-25
5.1.3.7 Staff members per 1000 ha area for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 ............................ Ch 5-26
5.1.3.8 Total O & M cost per unit water supplied for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 ............... Ch 5-26
5.2 A scorecard for measuring the Irrigation and drainage project performance ................ Ch 5-28
5.2.1 The design of Scale..................... Ch 5-29
5.3 Data Envelopment Analysis Framework.................. Ch 5-33
5.3.1 Inputs and Outputs for irrigation and drainage services employed in the Literature...... Ch 5-34

5.3.2 Selection of Inputs and Outputs.................... Ch 5-35
5.3.3 Inputs and Outputs specific to the Study Area for irrigation and drainage services....... Ch 5-35

CHAPTER 6: PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AT THE WUA LEVEL USING INDICATORS AND DEA ...........Ch 6-1 
6.0 Analysis, Results and Discussions............................. Ch 6-1
6.1 Indicator-by-Indicator Measure of Performance and integration into a scorecard .......... Ch 6-1
6.1.1 Technical Performance................... Ch 6-2
6.1.1.1 Potential created versus potential utilised in Rabi Season & Annually............................ Ch 6-2
6.1.1.2 WUA level number of Watering observed in year 2003-04 and 2007-08....................... Ch 6-4
6.1.2 Agriculture Production Performance.......................... Ch 6-6
6.1.2.1 Output per unit irrigated area (Rs/ha) ........................ Ch 6-6
6.1.3 Financial Performance.................... Ch 6-9
6.1.3.1 Cost Recovery Ratios.................... Ch 6-9
6.1.3.2 Maintenance Cost to RevenueCollection Ratios........................... Ch 6-11
6.1.3.3 Total O&M cost per unit area for period of 2003-04 and 2007-08.................... Ch 6-12
6.1.3.4 Total cost per person employed on water delivery.......................... Ch 6-14
6.1.3.5 Staffing number per unit area ...................... Ch 6-16
6.2 A scorecard for measuring the Irrigation and drainage project performance ................ Ch 6-17
6.3 Data Envelopment Analysis Framework at WUA level ................... Ch 6-24
6.3.1 Inputs and Outputs specific to the Indian irrigation and drainage services................... Ch 6-28

CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS.................... Ch 7-1

References................... R-1

Appendix I: Data requirements of the SAS distribution system and its sub-system for Performance Indicators w.r.t. its Definitions & Data Specifications................... A1-1
Appendix II: Sources of Data collected from different Institutions.................... A2-4
Appendix III: Data collection protocol (Measuring techniques and locations) ..................... A3-6
Appendix IV: Weights and scores for various Categories........ A4-10
Photographs of Study Area..................... P-1

List of Tables

Table 2.1 Data on Global Water Scenario.............................2-1
Table 2.2 Water Basin-wise Availability (Cubic Km/Year).............................2-5
Table 2.3 Area and Percentage share of different irrigation sources....................... 2-19
Table 2.4 Outlay for Irrigation Sector in Five Year Plans......................... 2-21
Table 2.5 Plan-Wise Position Of Irrigation Potential Created And Utilised.............................2-21
Table 2.6 Distribution of irrigated area in India per Federal State or Union Territory...................2-22
Table 2.7 Water Requirements in India for various purposes.............................2-23
Table 2.8 State-wise Position of Enactment of New Act / Amendment of existing Irrigation Act .......................... 2-31
Table 2.9 State-wise Number of Water Users' Associations (WUAs) and Area covered by them........................... 2-32
Table 3.1 Typical applications available in the Literature for indicator-by-indicator measures of performances integrated with Scorecard in various areas....................... 3-7
Table 3.2 Water delivery and utilisation domain..................... 3-9
Table 3.3 Applied indicators and targets set by Maharashtra State Water Resources Department, India for Benchmarking......................... 3-20
Table 3.4 Application of DEA Across Various Sectors..................... 3-23
Table 4.1 Indicators for Performance Evaluation..................... 4-5
Table 4.2 Scale and variations.................... 4-7
Table 4.3 Input & output used for various DEA Models used at Project level Benchmarking....... 4-13
Table 4.4 Input & output used for various DEA Models used at WUA level Benchmarking........ 4-14
Table 4.5 Salient Features of the Project Distribution Service Area of WUAs................... 4-18
Table 4.6 Salient features of the Project.......................... 4-19
Table 4.7 Assessment of Pre-sowing (Palew) Irrigation in different Field Condition.................. 4-22
Table 4.8 Conveyance Losses....................... 4-22
Table 5.1 Characteristics of Data employed for Indicator-by-Indicator at Project level for period 2000-01 to 2007-08............................. 5-2
Table 5.2 Analysis of Data for Indicator-by-Indicator Comparision ..................... 5-3
Table 5.3 Statistical analysis of Performace Indicators.................... 5-4
Table 5.4 Water Delivery Capacity Index for period 2000-01 to 2007-08.......................... 5-6
Table 5.5 Technical Performance of Canal System ................... 5-8
Table 5.6 Agriculture Production Performance of Canal System for period 2000-01 to 07-08...... 5-15
Table 5.7 Financial Performance of Canal System for period 2000-01 to 2007-08....................... 5-19
Table 5.8 Weights associated with Indicators for evaluation of Scores................. 5-29
Table 5.9 Scale and its variations.................... 5-30
Table 5.10 Weights and scores for Technical Performance......................... 5-31
Table 5.11 Weights and scores for Agriculture Production Performance................ 5-31
Table 5.12 Weights and scores for Financial Performance.......................... 5-32
Table 5.13 Characteristics of Data employed for DA at Project level for period 2000-01 to 2007-08............................. 5-34
Table 5.14 Input & output used for various DEA Models used at Project level Benchmarking......... 5-35
Table 5.15 Efficiency Scores for Model-I (period of 2000-01 to 2007-08)......................... 5-36
Table 5.16 Efficiency Scores for Model II (Period 2000-01 to 2007-08).................... 5-37
Table 5.17 Efficiency Scores for Model III (Period 2000-01 to 2007-08)................... 5-38
Table 5.18 Efficiency Scores for Model IV (Period 2000-01 to 2007-08)................... 5-40
Table 5.19 Efficiency Scores for Model V (Period 2000-01 to 2007-08).................... 5-40
Table 5.20 Efficiency Scores for Model VI (Period 2000-01 to 2007-08)........................... 5-42
Table 5.21 Project level Efficiency scores for Model I and Model IV (Period 2000-01 to 2007-08)............................. 5-43
Table 5.22 Potential savings for Model I & Model IV (2000-01 to 2007-08)....................... 5-43
Table 5.23 Project level Efficiency scores for Model II and Model V (Period 2000-01 to 2007-08)............................. 5-44
Table 5.24 Potential savings for Project level Revenue versus AgricultureCRS and VRS Model (Period 2000-01 to 2007-08) ............................. 5-44
Table 5.25 Project level Efficiency scores for Model III and Model VI (period 2000-01 to 2007-08)............................. 5-45
Table 5.26 Potential savings for Revenue versus Agriculture CRS and VRS Model III and Model VI (Period 2000-01 to 2007-08) .............................5-46
Table 5.27 Status of Model-wise Theoretical Benchmarks for period 2000-01 to 2007-08............. 5-46
Table 6.1 Potential created to potential utilised in Rabi Season at WUA level..................... 6-2
Table 6.2 WUA level number of Watering observed in year 2003-04 and 2007-08....................... 6-5
Table 6.3 Output per unit irrigated area versus output per unit command area.................... 6-7
Table 6.4 Cost Recovery Ratios and Ratio of Maintenance Cost to Revenue Collection Ratios..... 6-9
Table 6.5 Total O&M cost per unit area for period (2003-04 and 2007-08)...................... 6-12
Table 6.6 Persons deployed per irrigated area for WUA-wise of Samrat Ashok Sagar Project...... 6-14
Table 6.7 Weights associated with Indicators for evaluation of Scores for WUAs....................... 6-19
Table 6.8 Weights and scores for Technical Performance......................... 6-20
Table 6.9 Weights and scores for Agriculture Production Performance................ 6-21
Table 6.10 Weights and scores for Financial Performance......................... 6-22
Table 6.11 Characteristics of Data employed for DEA applied on WUAs................ 6-26
Table 6.12 A review on DEA inputs and outputs used in various studies on Irrigation and Drainage services at WUA level ............................. 6-27
Table 6.13 Input & output used for various DEA Models used at WUA level Benchmarking......... 6-29
Table 6.14 Efficiency Scores for various WUAs in Model I........................ 6-30
Table 6.15 Efficiency Scores for various WUAs in Model II...................... 6-32
Table 6.16 Efficiency Scores for various WUAs in Model III.................... 6-34
Table 6.17 Efficiency Scores for various WUAs in Model IV..................... 6-36
Table 6.18 Efficiency Scores for various WUAs in Model V...................... 6-38
Figure 6.19 Efficiency Scores for various WUAs in Model VI.................... 6-40
Table 6.20 Status of Model-wise Theoritically Efficient (Benchmark) WUAs...................... 6-42
Table 6.21 Status of Model-wise WUAs indicating Increasing Return to Scale..................... 6-42
Table 6.22 Efficiency Score for Year 2003-04 & 2007-08 at WUA level................... 6-43
Table 6.23 Saving in Operation and Maintenance Costs for various models......................... 6-45
Table 6.24 Possible Savings in Total Staff Deployment for various Models......................... 6-45
Table 6.25 Saving in O&M Cost & Total Staff Deployed under Models III and VI......................... 6-47

List of Figures

Figure 2.1 WUA executed works in SAS Project..................... 2-41
Figure 4.1 The Study Approach with Scorecard......................... 4-1
Figure 4.2 Flowchart for Study Mehodology................... 4-2
Figure 4.3 Methodology for Benchmarking by Data Envlopment Analysis.......................... 4-8
Figure 4.4 Envelopment surfaces and orientation..................... 4-10
Figure 4.5 Map of Major River Basins of Madhya Pradesh (Source: ESA, 2004)........................ 4-16
Figure 4.6 Satellite Map showing Study Area (Source: Sharma, 2004)................ 4-17
Figure 4.7 Map of Project area showing WUA boundries........................ 4-18
Figure 4.8 Elevation Capacity Curve for year 1997 and Year 2003.................... 4-21
Figure 4.9 Conveyance losses observed in Study Area........... 4-23
Figure 5.1 Water Delivery Capacity Index (Year 2000-01to 2007-08).................. 5-7
Figure 5.2 Status of Potential Created Versus Potential Utilised in Rabi Season for period of 2000-01 to 2007-08 (Source: Phadnis and Kulshrestha, 2010d)...................... 5-9
Figure 5.3 Status of Potential Created Versus Potential Utilised Annually for period 2000-01 to 2007-08............................ 5-10
Figure 5.4 Annual Water delivered against requirement for 2000-01 to 2007-08.......................... 5-11
Figure 5.5 Field application efficiency.......................... 5-11
Figure 5.6 Annual relative irrigation supply index for period 2000-01 to 2007-08....................... 5-12
Figure 5.7 Annual Irrigation Water Supply per unit Command Area and Irrigated Area for period 2000-01 to 2007-08............................ 5-14
Figure 5.8 Output per unit Command Area versus Irrigated Area for 2000-01 to 2007-08............ 5-16
Figure 5.9 Output per unit irrigation supply for period 2000-01 to 2007-08..................... 5-17
Figure 5.10 Cost Recovery Ratio....................... 5-20
Figure 5.11 Total O&M cost per unit area for period 2000-01 to 2007-08........................... 5-21
Figure 5.12 Total cost per person employed on water delivery per day for 2000-01 to 2007-08.... 5-22
Figure 5.13 Revenue Collection Performances for period 2000-01 to 2007-08................... 5-24
Figure 5.14 Average revenue per cubic metre of irrigation water supplied for 2000-01 to 2007-08... 5-24
Figure 5.15 Maintenance cost to revenue collection for period 2000-01 to 2007-08....................... 5-25
Figure 5.16 Staffing numbers per unit area annually for period 2000-01 to 2007-08...................... 5-26
Figure 5.17 Total O & M cost per unit of water supplied for period 2000-01 to 2007-08 .............. 5-27
Figure 5.18 Relative performances across various Categories..................... 5-32
Figure 5.19 Efficiency Score of Model I (period 2000-01 to 2007-08)................. 5-37
Figure 5.20 Efficiency Scores for Model II (period 2000-01 to 2007-08)........................... 5-38
Figure 5.21 Efficiency Scores for Model III (period 2000-01 to 2007-08)......................... 5-39
Figure 5.22 Efficiency Scores for Model IV (period 2000-01 to 2007-08)......................... 5-40
Figure 5.23 Efficiency Scores for Model V (period 2000-01 to 2007-08).......................... 5-41
Figure 5.24 Efficiency Score of Model VI (period 2000-01 to 2007-08)................... 5-42
Figure 6.1 WUA wise Irrigation Potential created versus Irrigation Potential utilised in Rabi Season 6-3
Figure 6.2 WUA wise Irrigation Potential created versus Annual Irrigation Potential utilised.......... 6-4
Figure 6.3 Number of Watering provided for Each WUA in different years....................... 6-5
Figure 6.4 Output per unit irrigated Area........................ 6-8
Figure 6.5 Output per unit Command Area..................... 6-8
Figure 6.6 WUA level cost recovery ratio.................... 6-10
Figure 6.7 Maintenance cost to Revenue Collection Ratio........ 6-11
Figure 6.8 Total O&M cost per unit area (period of 2003-04 and 2007-08) ..................... 6-13
Figure 6.9 Total Staff Deployed per ha irrigated Area............. 6-15
Figure 6.10 Total cost per person employed on water delivery per day (Rs/person/annum) at WUA Level..................... 6-17
Figure 6.11 Relative performances for Various Categories........................ 6-23
Figure 6.12 Efficiency Score for various WUAs in Model I........................ 6-31
Figure 6.13 Efficiency Scores for various WUAs in Model II....................... 6-33
Figure 6.14 Efficiency Scores for various WUAs in Model III.................... 6-35
Figure 6.15 Efficiency Scores for various WUAs in Model IV................... 6-37
Figure 6.16 Efficiency Scores for various WUAs in Model V..................... 6-39
Figure 6.17 Efficiency Scores for various WUAs in Model VI................... 6-41

List of Photographs

Samrat Ashok Sagar Project – Satellite View........................ P-1
Dam View ........................ P-1
Head Sluice of Dam........................ P-1
Divide Regulator of Right Bank and Left Bank Canal ........................ P-2
Scouring below Divide Regulator of Left Bank Canal ........................ P-2
Scouring below Divide Regulator of Right Bank Canal ........................ P-2

 


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Dainik-Bhaskar-Financial-Inclusion-Conclave-2013


'Thermal Power India’, TBA || New Delhi. INDIA
TPI-2012


Mission Infrastructure Conclave- 2nd edition, TBA || New Delhi. INDIA


Indian Solar Thermal Energy & PV Conference, TBA || New Delhi. INDIA


Smart Energy & Smart Metering India- 'Convergence of IT, Automation, Control & Communication', TBA || New Delhi. INDIA




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